文章小结题会给出 6 个选项，要求考生从中选出 3 个最能概括文章内容的选项。
> 1. 先判断选项是否正确，如果正确选项数量大于 3，再判断主要信息还是次要信息（如果正确选项数量正好是三个，直接选出来即可）。
> 2. 每个选项有三个状态：正确、错误和无法判断，对于无法判断的，要进行二次确认。
> 3. 正确选项不能违背作者的意图和常识（比如夏天下雪，这就违背了常识，可以直接排除）
**示例：「Animal Signals in the Rain Forest」**
> The daytime quality of light in forests varies with the density of the vegetation, the angle of the Sun, and the amount of cloud in the sky. Both animals and plants have different appearances in these various lighting conditions. A color or pattern that isrelatively indistinct in one kind of light may be quite conspicuous in another.
> In the varied and *constantly* changing light environment of the forest, an animal must be able to send visual signals to members of its own species and at the same time avoid being detected by predators. An animal can hide from predators by choosing the light environment in which its pattern is least visible. This may require moving to different parts of the forest at different times of the day or under different weather conditions, or it may be achieved by changing color according to the changing light conditions. Many species of amphibians (frogs and toads) and reptiles (lizards and snakes) are able to change their color patterns to camouflagethemselves. Some also signal by changing color. The chameleon lizard has the moststriking ability to do this. Some chameleon species can change from a rather dull appearance to a full riot of carnival colors in seconds. By this means, they signal their level of aggression or readiness to mate.
> Other species take into account the changing conditions of light by performing their visual displays only when the light is favorable. A male bird of paradise may put himself in the limelight by displaying his *spectacular* plumage in the best stage setting to attract a female. Certain butterflies move into spots of sunlight that have penetrated to the forest floor and display by opening and closing their beautifully patterned wings in the bright spotlights They also compete with each other for the best spot of sunlight.
> Very little light filters through the canopy of leaves and branches in a rain forest to reach ground level—or close to the ground—and at *those* levels the yellow-to-green wavelengths predominate. A signal might be most easily seen if it is maximally bright. In the green-to yellow lighting conditions of the lowest levels of the forest, yellow and green would be the brightest colors, but when an animal is signaling, these colors would not be very visible if the animal was sitting in an area with a yellowish or greenish background. The best signal depends not only on its brightness but also on how well it contrasts with the background against which it must be seen.In this part of the rain forest, therefore, red and orange are the best colors for signaling, and they are the colors used in signals by the ground-walking Australian brush turkey. This species, which lives in the rain forests and scrublands of the east coast of Australia, has a brown to-black plumage with bare, bright-red skin on the head and neck and a neck collar of orange-yellow loosely hanging skin. Duringcourtship and aggressive displays, the turkey enlarges its colored neck collar by inflating sacs in the neck region and then flings about a pendulous part of the colored signaling apparatus as it utters calls designed to attract or repel. This impressive display is clearly visible in the light spectrum illuminating the forest floor.
>Less colorful birds and animals that inhabit the rain forest tend to rely on forms of signaling other than the visual, particularly over long distances. The piercing cries of the rhinoceros hornbill characterize the Southeast Asian rain forest, as do the unmistakable calls of the gibbons. In densely wooded environments,sound is the best means of communication over distance because in comparison with light, it travels with little impediment from trees and other vegetation. In forests, visual signals can be seen only at short distances, where they are not obstructed by trees.The male riflebird exploits both of these modes of signaling simultaneously in hiscourtship display. The sounds made as each wing is opened carry extremely well over distance and advertise his presence widely. The ritualized visual display communicates in close quarters when a female has approached.
> 题目：Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
> **In the rain forest, an animal must be able to send signals to members of its own species and at the same time avoid being detected by predators..**
这是一道小结题，根据文章小结题的答题步骤，我们首先要做的是根据选项中的关键词定位，然后是在原文找到明确阐述，最后一步是选择和排除。A 选项说对于在一天中不同时间段拥有不同捕食者的动物，他们通过改变颜色来避免被**捕食者**发现。根据题干中的 avoid being detected 可定位至第二段第一句话，这句话确实提到「在多样和不断变化的森林光照环境下，动物必须能够发送视觉信号给自己的同类，同时避免被捕食者发现」，但并未提及 have different predators at different times of day，故排除 A 选项。To be noticed 对应原文第四段第四句话「The best signal depends not only on its brightness but also on how well it contrasts with the background against which it must be seen.」，即最佳的信号不仅取决于其明亮度，还在于它与背景颜色的对比度，故 to be noticed 选项为正确答案。Yellow 选项对应原文第四段第一句话，表述正确，但这不是文章的主要信息，而是一个细节信息（即次要信息），故排除该选项。来看 To escape 选项，根据题干中的 color pattern 和 visible 可定位至原文第二段第二句话和第三句话，纵观整段，都是围绕「动物必须能够发送视觉信号给自己的同类，同时避免被捕食者发现」阐述的，通过两种方式可以实现：在白天不同的时间或者在不同的天气条件下移动到森林的不同方位，也可以根据不同的光照来改变自身的颜色，故 To escape 选项正确。再看 Animals must 选项，根据题干中的 aggression 和 readiness 可定位至原文第二段最后一句话，但 must 词在原文中并没有体现，故排除该选项。最后看 An animal 选项，根据题干中的 sound signals 可定位至原文第五段，本段讲的是「对于生活在热带雨林中的色彩不那么鲜艳的鸟类和动物来说，它们则倾向于发出其他形式的信号而非视觉信号，尤其是在跨越长距离时」，这是因为「在树木繁茂的环境中，声音是最好的跨距离传播手段。因为，相较于视觉信号，声音几乎不受树木和其他植被的干扰」，故 An animal 选项正确。